Wednesday, October 15, 2014

Duke Nukem 3D - Game Tutorial Through Level Design

Some of the best games use level design to teach the player the mechanics of the game and how to ultimately play, instead of relying on the dreaded tutorial that forces the player to play through before actually getting to the game. One of the classic examples of this is World 1-1 in the original Super Mario Bros. The intro to this level has been analized to death, so I'm not going to beat that dead horse. Instead, I want to look at one of my favorite games of all time, Duke Nukem 3D, and how the mechanics of the game is taught to the player through the level design of Hollywood Holocaust.

Before we dive in, we need to remember that Duke Nukem 3D was released almost 19 years ago (damn, we're all getting old :( ). The first person shooter genre was just being born out of prior games such as Wolfenstein 3D and Doom. Duke Nukem 3D, at the time, was a large leap forward in the genre, offering true 3D play as players could traverse the Y-axis through jumping and jetpacking and incredibly expansive, detailed levels and interactivity. Duke3d needed to let the player know this isn't Doom they were playing!

We're going to walk through just the first area of Hollywood Holocaust, and how the level design is used to teach the player about the new mechanics available to him, both as a player who's played Doom, and a player new to the FPS genre entirely.



The game starts with Duke jumping out of his ride (damn those alien bastards!). Immediately, Duke is airborne. He doesn't start grounded, letting gravity pull him down the Y-axis. This immediately tells the player that there's a whole new axis of gameplay available to you. You will not be zipping around just the X and Z axes. This is further emphasized by the fact that you land on a caged in roof top. There's only one place to go but down!

The player is left to roam the enclosed rooftop. The rooftop is seemingly bare at first, but rewards the player for exploring beyond the obvious path with some additional ammo hidden behind the large crate. Exploration and hidden areas is a large part of Duke3d's gameplay, and this is a subtle, yet effective way of communicating that to the player.



Next, the player will come across a large vent fan, taped off, with some explosive barrels conveniently placed next to it. The game literally cannot continue until the player figures out the core mechanic of the game, shooting. Not only is the mechanic of shooting being taught, but also the mechanic of aiming at your target. This is all done at a leisurely, comfortable pace for the player. Imagine if that there was an enemy guarding the air vent? For a player new to the genre (and back in 1996, it was very common to have someone play this game who's never played a FPS before, not even Doom), it would have been very overwhelming and probably a guaranteed player death.

Once the player figures out aiming and shooting, they also are taught another core mechanic of the game, puzzle solving. Solving little environmental based puzzles will be common going forward, so the player needs to be taught to be aware of their surroundings and understand it is intractable and interactivity will be key to success.

It's fascinating to me that the core of the game is taught to the player in such little time, with such seemingly simple level design.


Thursday, August 28, 2014

Using Jenkins with Unity

Going off my last post where I used a batch script to automate Unity builds, I decided to take it a step further and integrate Jenkins, the popular CI sofware, into the process. 

With Jenkins, I can have it poll the Demons with Shotguns git repository, and have it detect when changes are made, in which it'll perform a Unity build (building the Windows target) and archive the build artifacts.

What's great about this is that I can clearly see which committed changes relate to which build, helping me identify when, and more importantly where, a new bug was introduced. 

image

I currently have it set to keep a backlog of 30 builds, but you can potentially keep an infinite number of builds (limited to your hard drive space, of course). 

So how do you configure this? Assuming you have Jenkins (and the required source control plugin) installed already, create a new job as a free-style software project. In the job configuration page, set the max # of builds to keep (leave blank if you don't want to limit this). In the source code management section, set it up accordingly to whichever source control software you use (I'm using git). This section, and how you set it up, is going to vary greatly depending on which source control software you use.

Under build triggers, do Poll SCM and set the appropriate cron job syntax based on how frequently you want to poll the source repository for changes. 

Under the build section, add a Execute Windows batch command build step. You then script up which targets you want to build (you can use the script in my previous post as a template). 

Under post-build actions, add Archive the artifacts. In the files to archive text box, setup the fileset masks you want. For a standalone build it would look like "game.exe,game_Data/**". 

That's it! I do know that there is a Unity plugin for Jenkins that'll help run the BuildPipeline without having to write a batch script but I never had success in getting it running so I just went this route. 

Automating Unity Builds

I wanted a way to automate building Unity projects from a command line, but to also commit each build to a git repo so I can keep track of the builds I make (in case something breaks, I can go back to previous builds and see where it might of broken). This is my poor man's CI process.

Here's the script in all its glory.

As you can see, it's nothing special. Simply plug in the path to your project and where you want to the exe to spit out. Adding other build targets is trivial as well. Best part of this, it doesn't require the Pro version of Unity at all!

This solution is temporary. I'm going to wrap this in Jenkins so that it'll detect git commits then build and archive the game's .exe. More on that soon!

Monday, July 7, 2014

How to program independent games by Jonathan Blow - A TL;DR

On April 1, 2011, Jonathan Blow gave a presentation at UC Berkeley's Computer Science Undergraduate Association entitled How to program independent games. Thankfully, it's available on YouTube. This talk is insightful not just for the indie game dev, but for any software developer in general. Please take the time to view it.


This is a talk about productivity, about getting things done, more than anything. Programmers that get their computer science degree are often taught how to optimize code, but this generally comes at a great expense to productivity. Indie game devs have to wear several hats (if not all of the hats), so time is too precious to be wasted.

There are several examples Blow goes through to illustrate this, some of which I think are very weak arguments given modern APIs (I'm referring to his hash table vs. arrays argument), but the majority of them are spot on. One that stood out in particular is the urge to make everything generic, when it may not be necessary. More often than not, a method you're writing will be a one off, only used to perform some type of action on one type of object, so time is absolutely wasted trying to make that method work on an entire hierarchy of objects.

The biggest take away is simply this: the simplest solution to implement is almost always the correct one. Get it done. Move on. Fix it/optimize it only when you absolutely need to.

Monday, April 21, 2014

Creating a flexible audio system in Unity

Unity's audio system isn't without its disadvantages. One of it's major issues is that a single AudioSource can only play one audio clip at a time. You may say "well, that kind of makes sense" but why not fire a background thread for each play request?

Playing only one audio clip at a time can be a problem in scenarios where you have an AudioSource attached to a prefab, your Player for example, and you have multiple audio clips you'd like to be played in succession. Your player jumps, so you want to play a jumping sound effect, but within the time that jumping sound effect is playing, they get hit by something, so you swap out the audio clip and play a player hit sound effect, but if you're trying to use a single AudioSource, that'll cut off the currently playing jumping sound effect. It'll sound bad, jarring and confusing to the player. Most obvious solution is to simply attach a new audio source for every audio clip you'd like to play. That may get nightmarish if you end up having a lot of possible audio clips to play.

My solution has been to create a central controller that'll listen for game events to spawn and pool AudioSource game objects in the scene at a specified location (in case the audio clip is a 3D sound), load it with a specified AudioClip, and play it, and return the instance back to the object pool for later use. This allows you to play multiple audio clips at a single location, at a single time, without cutting each other off. You also get the benefit of keeping your game prefabs clean and tidy.

I'm always reluctant to share my code because I use StrangeIoC, which not everyone is using (though you probably should!) and the code structure may seem alien, but a keen developer should be able to adapt the solution to their needs. Let's go through a working example.

I've attempted to comment this Gist well enough so that people who aren't familiar with StrangeIoC can still follow along. The basic execution is


  1. Player is hit, dispatch a request to play the "player is hit" sound effect
  2. This is a fatality event, dispatch a request to also play the "player fatality" sound effect
  3. PlaySoundFxCommand receives both events
  4. For each separate event, attempt to obtain an audio source prefab from the object pool. If one is not available, it will be instantiated
  5. If the _soundFxs Dictionary doesn't already have a reference to the requested AudioClip, load it via Resources.Load and store reference for future calls
  6. Setup the AudioSource (assign AudioClip to play, position, etc)
  7. Play the AudioSource
  8. Start a Coroutine to iterate every frame while the AudioClip is still playing
  9. Once the AudioClip is done, deactivate the AudioSource and return it back to the object pool

With this system, you never have to worry about audio clips cutting each other off, everything is centralized, and you don't have to manually manage the different possible AudioSources. However, you do need to keep an eye on memory usage as we are pooling and saving reference to a lot of resources, which may hinder how well this system can scale. A possible improvement is to limit the number of AudioClips we save reference to in the _soundFxs Dictionary, and when that limit is reached, remove an entry. You could go as far as to figure out which sound effect are least used, and remove those first. 









Thursday, March 27, 2014

Reducing Your Game's Scale: Save It For The Sequel!

It seemingly happens to almost every designer, novice or veteran, AAA and indie. You have that grand game idea. When you close your eyes, you can see it being played before you. The expansive levels, the fancy weapons, the beautiful graphics and audio, all of the little polished details. Then you snap back to reality and (hopefully) quickly realize the scale of your dream game is simply too large.

Time to start cutting!

This may seem terrible and disappointing, but just because you're cutting features and making compromises doesn't mean the initial vision is completely lost. Firstly, you're helping to ensure that you actually get to release your game. This is the ultimate goal, and everything should be done to ensure this (oh, but do make sure you provide a great experience!). Take the ideas you're cutting, write them down somewhere, as they are not lost forever.

Save them for the sequel!

Obviously, Overtime had a much grander scale when I first started designing compared to what it's been boiled down to now. Even after I write this, I'm sure more things will be cut. Being a solo developer working on his first actual commercial release, the scale needs to be small to ensure I actually release something. However, everything that I am cutting I do want to see come to fruition, so it's being saved for a sequel game, which I hope I get to work on given that the first title is received well enough to warrant it. 

So don't fret, don't fear! Cut, cut cut. You'll see an amazing thing happen, something that you probably couldn't imagine be happening. Your game becomes better for it, and you actually increase your chances of releasing. Not a bad trade off at all.